GDP or gross domestic product, is the value of all value of all goods and services produced in the economy over a period of time, normally a year. The measure excludes intermediate goods, or the goods and services that go into the production of other goods. Thsi is to prevent double counting as value of intermediate goods is already included in the final goods or service. It is gross measure in that value of capital goods that goes into replacement is not netted out. It is a 'domestic' measure as it does not include income from abroad.
An ETF is a basket of stock that reflects the composition of an index, like S&P CNX Nifty, BSC Sensex or the banking index. An ETF's trading value is based on the net asset value of the underlying stocks that it represents. It is similar to mutual fund that you can buy and sell in real-time at a price that changes durring the trading session. ETFs are essentially index funds that are listed and traded on exchanges like stocks. They enable investors to gain broad exposure to entire stock markets in different countries and specific sectors with relative ease, on a real-time basis and at a lwer cost than many other forms of investing.
Corporate hedging is a mechanism to protect a firm's exposure to foreign exchange risk. The process is managed by corporate treasury officials and they work toward maximising forex income and minimising costs. In the process, they to minimise losses the volatility in the currency markets, by covering the exposure. The extent of the foreign currency risk for a firm depends on the value foreign exchange rates, among other things.
Did you know you could use your mobile phone to make instant payments for you rail tickets, credit card and DTH mobile recharges? Or transfer funds to your friend? All of this can be done just through an SMS or an app. This retail fund-transfer system, called the inter-bank mobile payments service, works in real time and is available 24x7. Hare's how:
An account is termed as a bad loan or NPA when a borrower fails to pay his bank monthly-equated instalment. According to banking ruls, a loan is classified as an NPA when the EMI, princippal or interest component, is not paid within 90 days from the due date. When an asset ceases to generate any income, it's termed as a bad loan. There are classification of loans-standard, sub-standard, doubtful and loss assets. In order to ensure that banks are not affected due to defaults, regulator RBI has mandates them to make provisions or set aside money when an account turns bad.