Networking hardware includes all computers, peripherals, interface cards and other equipment needed topperform data-processing and communications within the network.CLICK on the terms below to learn more about those pieces of networking hardware.
A Protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. In order for two computers to talk to each other, they must be speaking the same language. Many different types of network protocols and standards are required to ensure that your computer ( no matter which operating system, network card, or application you are using ) can communicate with another computer located on the next desk or half-way around the world. The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection ) Reference Model defines seven layers of networking protocols. The complexity of these layers is beyond the scope of this tutorial; however, they can be simplified into four layers to help identify some of the protocols with which you should be familiar.
Kernel : In computing , the kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems : it is a bridge betwwn applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel's responsibilities include managing the system's resources ( the communication between hardware and software components). Usually as a basic component of an operating system, a kernel can provide the lowest -level abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices) that application software must control to perform its function. It typically makes these facilities available to application processes through inter-process communication mechanisms and system calls.
While viruses can be intentionally destructive(for example, by destroying data), many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. Some viruses have a delayed payload, which is sometimes called a bomb. For example, a virus might display a message on a specific day or wait until it has infected a certain number of files or computers. A time bomb occurs during a particular data or time and a logic bomb occurs when the user of a computer takes an action that triggers the bomb. However, the predominant negative effect of viruses is their uncontrolled self-reproduction, which wastes or overwhelms computer resources.